Tuesday, May 22, 2012

Defining Islamic Spirituality

http://www.flickr.com/photos/moonbird/428974987/in/photostream/Scriptural References to the Spiritual Imperative of Islam
There are numerous ayat (verses or signs) of the Holy Quran that indicate the importance of spiritual purification. God talks of the nafs (self) and says: “Whoever purifies it has succeeded; and failure is the lot of whoever corrupts it,” (Qur’an 91:9-10). Furthermore, Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) is quoted in the Qur’an: “The Day [of Judgement] whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, except him who comes to Allah with a sound heart,” (bi-qalbin salim) (Qur’an 26:88-9). Moreover, God mentions the role of the Messenger Muhammad ﷺ (peace be upon him): “A similar (favour have you already received) in that We have sent among you a Messenger of your own, rehearsing to you Our signs, and purifying you, and instructing you in the Book and the Wisdom (al-hikma), and in new knowledge that beforehand you did not know,” (Qur’an 2:151).  The following hadith (record) in Sahih Muslim is also of critical importance in this regard: “Allah shall not look at your bodies or your faces, but rather looks into your hearts.”
Defining Islamic Spirituality
When turning to Islamic spirituality, we can use two Arabic words that denote the focus of the activity: firstly, al-qalb, or the heart; and, secondly, al-nafs or the self or ego. ‘Abdal-Qadir ‘Isa says in Haqa’iq ‘an al-tasawwuf: “Purification of the heart (tanqiya al-qalb) and rectification of the self (tahdhib al-nafs) are from the most important of personally obligatory acts and of the imperative Divine commands, as proven by the Book, the Sunna (tradition), and statements of the scholars.” Suyuti says in al-Ashbah wa’l-naza’ir: “As for learning the science of the heart (‘ilm al-qalb) and its diseases, such as envy (hasad), conceitedness (‘ujb), ostentation (riya’) and the like, Ghazzali said its learning is personally obligatory (fard ‘ayn).”
A popular term for describing the science of Islamic spirituality is tasawwuf, whose accepted English translation is Sufism. Sufism, as even acknowledged by certain Sufis, has had its own historical battles against heterodox and outright deviant attempts to subvert it from Islamic orthodoxy. In this respect, ‘Abdal-Qadir ‘Isa notes that Sufism is no different to the sciences of hadith, Qur’anic exegesis (tafsir) and history, which all had “severe opponents and fierce enemies who attempted to demolish” Islam “by defacing its signposts and interpolating falsehoods and superstitions into its sciences.” Thus, in order to dispel any misconception, ‘Abdal-Qadir ‘Isa makes reference to “Islamic Sufism” (al-tasawwuf al-islami).
Furthermore, ‘Abdal-Fattah Abu Ghudda, in his notes to Muhasibi’s Risala al-mustarshidin, after quoting a lengthy passage from Shatibi defending the Sufis in general, distinguishes and endorses “true Sufism” (al-tasawwuf al-haqq) and “true Sufis” (al-Sufiyya al-haqiqiyyin”); hence the mistake, in his opinion, of those who disparage tasawwuf or Sufis “without restriction” (bi’l-itlaq).Yet, after Hasanayn Makhluf praises a host of famous Sufis in his panegyric (taqriz) of ‘Abdal-Fattah Abu Ghudda’s commentary of Risala al-mustarshidin, Abu Ghudda adds a note of caution: that these major, pious figures were not infalliable (ahl al-isma), therefore any of their errors will be pointed out as such, with all due respect (bi-adab), like any other non-Prophet, “and without tearing them up” (wa la tahdimuhum).
Yet many others have simply referred to tasawwuf as the discipline of Islamic spirituality without qualification, on the obvious proviso that the term is meant in the most orthodox terms, in the same way that one encourages one to study theology (‘aqidah), Sacred Law (fiqh) or the other sacred sciences (‘ulum al-din) without adding any qualifying adjective, because one understands the encouragement as calling towards orthodoxy in each instance without having to say so. Conversely, some people only use the term Sufism in a derogatory fashion, as can be seen in the usage of Rabi’ al-Madkhali in his booklet entitled The Reality of Sufism, or even Jamaal al-Din Zarabozo’s use of the term in his Purification of the Soul: Concept, Process and Means. In the latter work, Zarabozo admits that “not all Sufis are the same”, but “by definition and their own admission there must be something in Sufism that is distinct and separate from what all other scholars recognise to be the clear and manifest teachings of the Quran and Sunnah.”
With all that clarification, the following summations of what is Sufism are of great assistance. Ahmad Zarruq, in Qawa’id al-tasawwuf, mentions that tasawwuf has received two thousand definitions; but his thirteenth principle in the work summarises the science as “a knowledge seeking the betterment of the hearts (islah al-qulub) and turning them solely to Allah Most High and nothing else.” Ibn Khaldun, in al-Muqaddimah, placed tasawwuf amongst the “Sacred sciences” (al-‘ulum al-shar’iyya), and was considered “truth” (al-haqq) and “guidance” (al-hidaya) from the earliest times of the Community. Zafar ‘Uthmani, in I’la al-Sunan, stated that tasawwuf is “drawing nearer to Allah through knowledge and action”; hence it “gives life to both the outward and inward”: the “outward” is adorned by “good deeds” that are visible; and the “inner” is adorned “through the remembrance of Allah, leaving reliance on other than Him, adorning oneself with praiseworthy traits (akhlaq), and purifying oneself of the taint of base traits” (trans. F Rabbani).
Perhaps there is some merit in making a distinction between tasawwuf and general tazkiya (purification), because there is a distinctive Sufi method of thinking and training that is reflected in the development of the Sufi Orders (turuq, sing. tariqa) in later Islamic history, which contrasts with the sort of general tazkiya that retains a strict scriptural basis without any submission to the Shaykhs of the Sufi Orders. Alternatively, we can contrast tariqa-based tasawwuf and non-tariqa tasawwuf which is perhaps best given another name like tazkiya al-nafs. There is great overlap between the latter two, which is why it is understandable that non-tariqa scholars would speak of their own tasawwuf, because they have given the science such a general meaning when they are really just talking about the general spirituality of tazkiya (such as Abu Ghudda). Moreover, as one sees above in the very general definitions of Sufism offered by tariqa-Sufis like Zarruq and ‘Uthmani, one can understand why certain scholars still considered themselves Sufis despite not being part of an Order or delving into mysticism.
A reason for dividing general tasawwuf from tariqa-tasawwuf can be seen by simply studying a well-known Sufi manual like the Risala of Qushayri. While Qushayri uses both the Qur’an and hadith as a basis for his chapter headings on spiritual topics, the chapters contain highly mystical theories of late Sufism, such as fana’ (annihiliation), baqa’ (subsistence) and jam’ (union), etc. These theories are taken up as central points by late Sufis of the Orders, although a Sufi like Ahmad Sirhindi, despite endorsing the path that traverses such states, said that the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and give him peace) did not experience such states. Yet these mystical features are not a feature of general Sufi or tazkiya works like Muhasibi’s Risala and Abu Ghudda’s commentary; indeed, Abu Ghudda praises Muhasibi’s works for eschewing “philosophical Sufism” (al-tasawwuf al-falsafi) and merely being the “call to rectification of knowledge and action, vigilant observance of Allah Most High, purification of the soul from filth, and making it advance to the pleasure of Allah (praised and exalted be He).”
In practical terms, we can therefore distinguish between “Sufis” who speak in the language and the method of the Orders, and “Sufis” who advance a non-tariqa method of spiritual advancement (such as the early Sufis and then most prominently scholars like Nawawi, Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim, and latterly Abdal-Fattah Abu Ghudda and Yusuf Qaradawi). Perhaps the latter group are best spoken of as non-Sufis, but it doesn’t really matter, as long as one understands the difference in methodology, even if the title remains the same or differs.
In terms of the various titles for Islamic spirituality – which is Islamic in so much as it always strives to remain true to the Scripture – in addition to what we have previously stated, Taqi ‘Uthmani adds tariqa (the path), suluk (travel) and ihsan (excellence) in his Spiritual Discourses.
In conclusion, one takes any practitioner of Islamic spirituality, regardless of the title that they use, and judges them wholly by the Scripture, and the good is taken, whilst the objectionable is discarded; and perfection is only the case of the Prophets (may the peace and blessings of God be upon them, and may He make us of the purified in this world and the next).

Hijab is not protect men, but to honor women

As we know, Islam provides a few guidelines on dress code for both men and women. They are designed to promote modesty while still allowing a functioning and healthy society. I’ve heard and read a number of stories and have observed the attitudes of many brothers: that Islamic guidelines for women’s clothing and modesty exist largely for the purpose of protecting men from fitnah (trial, spiritual test, calamity). If a Muslim woman does not dress in a way they deem appropriate in their vicinity, some people will denigrate them for dressing or acting un-Islamically and being a fitnah for them. Some of these comments highlight an understanding that is divorced from healthy Islamic principles:
“Oh man, these girls are a fitnah!”
“If a guy looks at you more than once, you aren’t covering properly.”
“If a guy likes you, then you are a fitnah in the community.”
“If you’re causing fitnah at school, it is better for you to leave the school.”
“Cover properly, so that you aren’t a trial for the guys!”
Such comments strike at the insecurities, religious aspirations, and self-esteem of our sisters in a way Islam never ever meant. This environment can only result in a few endings. One, a person will decide that she wants nothing to do with a practicing version of Islam and will leave practicing circles, deciding to strike her own path. Why would anyone want to be in a judgmental environment? Second, she may buy into this version of “Islam” and develop insecurities and issues that a natural, Prophetically-guided, scholarly approach to Islam would never allow.
In Islam, hijab is not demanded of women by men. Hijab and modesty is ordered upon women by the Merciful Ever-Living, Ever-Watchful God, as a protection and a barrier. A means of interacting in society while holding the line against anyone who would seek to harass, hit on, annoy, or irritate them. It is an outward symbol of an inward spiritual reality and aspiration. It is not a political flag for the Islamic state, it is not a sign of women’s subjugation to men, it is not a litmus test for religiosity, and it is not a measure of a woman’s piety, family background, or sign of her upbringing.
It is one act, a result of one of God’s commands. Everyone tries to obey Him, all of us fall short. As one of the `ulama (scholars) in Chicago once taught: “A person’s public sin is no worse than your private sin.”
The attitude that hijab and Islamic dress codes exist to protect men are an utter and total fallacy.  How do we know that? Let us approach the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta`ala (exalted is He):
“O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.” (Qur’an 33:59)
This verse comes with the cause or ‘illa behind the commandment: “so that they may be known and not abused.” Notice that the verse does not come with any mention of men. This is about the protection of women’s physical safety and presence from men, not the protection of men’s spiritual state from women. The fact that this protection may occur is a benefit of the Hijab for the community, not its purpose. From this, we can take four points that are critical to a healthy Islamic understanding of hijab.
  1. Hijab is not there to protect men. If you think it is there to protect you as a man, we have turned an act to be done for Allah (swt), into an act to be done for us. It is there to protect women, so do not pervert the purpose of this command of God (swt).  There is no doubt that we come across immodesty on TV, at school, work, and all over. We should not use the fact that a sister is dressed in a way that does not fit God’s commandments (or our personal interpretation of God’s commandments) into a reason for having bad manners, a lack of respect, and a lack of humility.
For brothers, we should lower our gazes and move on. We don’t need to comment about how this is such a fitnah or loudly say, “Astaghfirullah (I seek refuge in God),” so our boys can hear us and see how “pious” we are.
For sisters, if you want to advise someone about hijab, ask yourself, am I advising because it makes me feel pious? Or am I advising because I care about this person and want to be a good friend and sister in calling her towards the pleasure of Allah (swt)? Most of the sisters who decide to wear the hijab in adulthood don’t do it because someone yelled at them or taunted them. They do it because they were able to recognize its beauty after spending time with people who wore it with dignity and showed modesty not just in their clothing, but also in their character.
  1. Men should frame the issue of the fitnah of women in their environment as a factor of their own closeness to God. We know the society we live in and the schools we go to. That was never a surprise. Taqwa (God consciousness) is the key protecting us, so focus on that.
There are so many gender-relations talks and seminars in Muslim communities that it almost baffles the outsider. How can a group of people who claim to have the guidance and the path to Paradise laid out for them by the Best of Mankind ﷺ (peace be upon him), have trouble understanding the basics of how to interact with one another professionally and with respect?
The issue of struggling with the base desires, as mentioned in Imam al-Ghazali’s book, “Breaking the Two Desires,” is one that is closely tied to one’s relationship with God. The soul is something that was created by God, and in order to get it to grow and defeat the base desires of the body, it must be fed. As Shah Walilullah wrote, something that is created out of the spiritual world, cannot be fed with the material of the physical world. If we want to curtail the desires of our body (for sex, comfort, food), and increase the spiritual discipline and awareness of God in our own souls, the key is developing a relationship and connection to the Book of God, the houses of God, the people of God, and the remembrance of God. Complaining about how some women in our environment do not dress appropriately and so we are having spiritual struggles is a cop out.
As many of our spiritual masters have said over the centuries, the first step in gaining nearness to God, is to understand that one must blame his or her own soul, and acknowledge his or her own deficiencies, before seeking the One who is Free From Deficiencies. This is put into action through tawbah – turning towards God in repentance.
  1. Hijab is about the Fiqh (Law) for Women, not the Tazkiyyah (Spiritual Purification) of Men
We should make no mistake. The legal opinion of normative Islam, from the time of the Prophet ﷺ till today, is undivided in the view that women should cover their hair and dress modestly in the presence of non-familial men. The scholars are also undivided in the fact that you and I should not yell at our parents, swear at the weather, treat people harshly, drink alcohol, miss prayers, speak meanly to others, backbite, or judge other human beings without knowing their situations.
Muslim men should focus on their spirituality through good company, prayer, and all the other practices we are ordered to do, while allowing this to remain an issue’s of women’s fiqh (law), and not of men’s spirituality.
Because of the judgmental comments and harshness, and sometimes, sly, torpedo-in-the-water comments directed towards our sisters, many imams, da`ees (people who call others to Islam), teachers, and well-meaning advisors have trouble approaching the topic of hijab. Anyone even discussing it is often painted with the paintbrush that he is “judgmental.” This occurs even when the da`ee or teacher is doing so in the best of manners and with sound knowledge. This fault is on all involved of course – those of us responsible for spreading an environment of harshness, and those responsible for judging all religiously-oriented figures as being harsh and difficult to deal with.
The bad manners of some of us in “enjoining good” have made it impossible for our teachers and people of knowledge to enjoin it correctly, as people paint all of those who open their mouth on this and other issues with the same brush. This allows those who actually try to claim that the hijab is not a part of Islam to have their ignorance heard, while keeping the knowledgeable scholars from having their knowledge spread. 
  1. Men should advise the women of their family and encourage them on this topic in a way that befits the Prophetic character.
No one should take this to mean that hijab is not an important part of a Muslim’s woman’s obligations towards God. But that is the key. Towards God. Hijab should not become inflated as a symbol that boosts the religious standing of a woman’s family, nor a flag of political Islam, nor a tool to show off her piety, nor a cloth of guilt that makes her hate it.
It is instead, a command from God that comes in the most beautiful manner, for her own protection, her own elevation, and her own dignity.
As a closing note, we should remember that if we are doing something that is good, and are enabled to do it – we should not cast off that good deed just because we may have suddenly realized that our original intention was not solely for the sake of Allah (swt). Even if we are wearing the hijab, praying regularly, speaking well, giving charity, or doing any other good deed and originally began it with an intention that wasn’t healthy or focused on Allah (swt), we should not let Shaytaan (the Devil) trick us into ceasing the good deed. Instead, we can turn towards our Lord, ask him to purify our intention, and dedicate our deed towards Him.
This is a religion that is about community. As our Lord states in Surat al Hujurat (The Chapter of the Rooms, Qur’an 49), we are nothing but brothers and sisters to each other. We should advise each other towards good, but do it with a sound understanding of the legal basis of what we are calling to, as well as a sound understanding of the manners that befit our message. (http://www.suhaibwebb.com/)

Kota Istambul

Istanbul, Kota Impian Para Raja (2)“Kota Konstantinopel akan jatuh ke tangan Islam. Pemimpin yang menaklukkannya adalah sebaik-baik pemimpin dan pasukan yang berada di bawah komandonya adalah sebaik-baik pasukan.” (HR Ahmad bin Hanbal Al-Musnad)

Prediksi Rasulullah SAW mengenai kejatuhan Konstantinopel itu akhirnya benar-benar terbukti. Kamis, 26 Rabiul Awal 857 H/6 April 1453 M, pasukan tentara Muslim di bawah komando Sultan Muhammad II tiba di ibukota negara adikuasa bernama Bizantium. 

Sultan pun berkirim surat kepada penguasa Bizantium yang berisi ajakan untuk masuk Islam atau menyerahkan Konstantinopel secara damai. Perang menjadi pilihan terakhir.
Namun, penguasa kota itu,  Constantine Paleologus, menolak seruan dakwah dan berkukuh tak mau menyerahkan Konstantinopel ke tangan Umat Islam. Paleologus lebih memilih jalan perang.

Pasukan tentara Bizantium dibantu Kardinal Isidor, Pangeran Orkhan dan Giovanni Giustiniani dari Genoa, siap menghadapi meriam-meriam tercanggih dan 130 ribu tentara Muslim. Lantaran tawarannya ditolak, Sultan ketujuh dari Kerajaan Usmani itu pun mulai mengobarkan semangat jihad. 

Gema takbir terus membahana seiringderasnya serangan yang dilancarkan pasukan Sultan Mehmed begitu orang Barat menyebutnya ke benteng Bizantium yang kokoh.
Pertempuran hebat pun meletus. Kerajaan Ottoman dengan strategi, teknologi perang, serta kepemimpinan militer yang tangguh, dan 130 ribu pasukan akhirnya berhasil membungkam kepongahan Bizantium.

Setelah 53 hari berjibaku angkat senjata, dengan semangat jihad pasukan Sultan Muhammad akhirnya berhasil menguasai Konstantinopel. Harapan dan impian umat Islam untuk menundukkan Bizantium yang telah dirintis sejak tahun 664 M akhirnya tercapai. 

Kemenangan yang tertunda selama 800 tahun itu akhirnya tiba juga. Sejak saat itu, bendera Kerajaan Usmani  berkibar di langit Konstantinopel, kota impian para raja, kaisar dan sultan. Konstantinopel pun memasuki era baru. Kota itu lalu berganti nama menjadi Istanbul yang berarti ‘kota Islam’, sekaligus menjadi ibukota Kerajaan Ottoman. (Republika, 22 Mei 2012).

Sebuah momentum penting dalam sejarah dunia. Kali pertama menduduki kota penting itu, Kerajaan Usmani mulai menegakkan hukum di kota itu. 

Tak ada pembantaian terhadap penduduk Konstantinopel. Bahkan, pemerintahan Islam Usmani bekerja sama dengan umat Kristen untuk kembali membangun perekonomian, menjalin persahabatan dengan Yunani. 

Dinasti Usmani juga terus mengepakkan sayap kekuasaannya ke wilayah Mesir, Arabia, dan Syria (Suriah). Yang tak kalah pentingnya, kerajaan Usmani menyebarkan ajaran Islam hingga ke kawasan Balkan.
Seiring dengan menancapnya dominasi Islam, wajah bekas kota Konstantinopel itu pun berganti rupa. Bangunan masjid bermunculan, namun tetap dengan corak arsitektur Bizantum yang khas.
Tak heran, jika pengaruh Bizantium ikut mewarnai gaya arsitektur Islam di Turki. Kemegahan bangunan Gereja Aya Sofia banyak mewarnai arsitektur masjid di Istanbul. 

Di bawah kekuasaan Daulah Usmani, Istanbul terus berbenah. Pembangunan pun terus berlanjut, sepeninggal Sultan Muhammad (Mehmed) II.
Pada era kepemimpinan Sultan Sulaiman I (1520-1566), pada tahun 1550 di Istanbul berdiri Masjid Sulaiman. Bangunan masjid itu berdiri kokoh dengan empat menara dan kubahnya lebih tinggi dari Aya Sofia.

Guna menambah jumlah penduduk Muslim di Istanbul, umat Islam yang tinggal di Anatolia dan Rumeli dianjurkan untuk bermigrasi ke Istanbul. Akhir 1457, migrasi besar-besaran terjadi dari Edirne, bekas ibukota Kerajaan Usmani, ke Istanbul.

Pada 1459, kota terbesar di Eropa itu dibagi menjadi empat wilayah administratif. Sebagai sebuah kota besar pada zamannya, di Istanbul pun berdiri berbagai sarana dan prasarana publik. Tak kurang ada 81 masjid besar serta 52 masjid berukuran sedang di kota itu. 

Untuk mendidik para generasi muda, tersedia 55 madrasah, tujuh asrama besar untuk mempelajari Alquran. Fasilitas sosial pun bermunculan, tak kurang lima takiyah atau tempat memberi makan fakir miskin berdiri.

Tiga rumah sakit disediakan untuk mengobati penduduk kota.Tujuh buah jembatan juga dibangun untuk memperlancar arus transportasi. Guna menunjukkan kejayaannya, Kerajaan Usmani membangun 33 istana dan 18 unit pesanggrahan. 

Selain itu, 33 tempat pemandian umum juga telah disediakan di berbagai penjuru kota. Untuk menyimpan benda-benda bersejarah, pemerintah Usmani pun menyediakan lima museum. ( Republika , 22 Mei 2012 )

Pada 14 Juli 1509, Istanbul sempat diguncang gempa bumi dahsyat atau yang dikenal sebagai ‘kiamat kecil’.

Ribuan bangunan yang awalnya berdiri kokoh akhirnya luluh lantak. Mulai 1510 M, Sultan Bayezid bahu membahu membangun kembali Kota Istanbul selama 80 tahun. Hingga akhirnya, kota itu kembali tampil megah dan gagah.

Pada tahun 1727 M, pada masa Ibrahim Muteferika seorang ilmuwan terkemuka di Istanbul, dibuka percetakan. Seiring dengan lahirnya fatwa dari Syekh Al-Islam kerajaan, buku-buku selain Alquran, hadits, fikih, ilmu kalam dan tafsir juga mulai diperbolehkan untuk dicetak. 

Sejak itulah, buku-buku tentang kedokteran, astronomi, ilmu pasti, sejarah, dan lainnya  dicetak. Apalagi mulai 1727 sudah mulai berdiri badan penerjemah.
Sayangnya, ketika imperium Usmani memegang kendali kekuasaan, jejak peradaban yang ditinggalkan pada abad ke-8 M sampai ke-13 M tak dilanjutkan.

Daulah Usmani lebih  berkonsentrasi membangun pertahanan dan armada perang untuk memperluas wilayah kekuasaan, ketimbang membangun universitas dan pusat-pusat riset ilmu pengetahuan.

Seiring kemunduran yang dialami Kerajaan Usmani, Turki akhirnya berubah haluan menjadi negara sekuler pada 1923. Di bawah kepemimpinan Kemal Attaturk, sekularisme menjadi ideologi negara.
Semua simbol Islam dilarang, penggunaan bahasa dan aksara Arab diganti huruf Latin. Dakwah diawasi. Bahkan pada 1925, Attaturk melarang tarekat dan pergi haji. Pendidikan agama amat dibatasi. Pengadilan agama ditutup, hukum pernikahan Islam diganti dengan hukum positif Swedia.
Kini angin segar kembali berhembus di Istanbul. Muslimah kini diperbolehkan lagi mengenakan jilbab.

Pada tahun 2010, saya berkesempatan mengunjungi kota Istambul, ketika ada penugasan ikut seminar tentang OIC. Saya sempat  masjid Biru, gereja yang diubah jadi masjid serta pasar yang pernah dibangun lebih dari 1000 tahun yang lalu.

Saya juga beli sepatu dan sempat memakai sorban imam masjid Biru. Saya merasakan teduh di masjid ketika sholat subuh. Benar, saya turis, tetapi menimati bangunan masjid justru kala setelah solat subuh dengan khusuk di sana.

Menurut sebagian riwayat, pada tahun 1923, ulama di surabaya dan pesisir jawa tengah gelisah, karena kekhalifahan islamiyah sebagai wujud dari tunggalnya kekuasaan daulah islmaiah hilang, karena Kemal Attaturk menyatakan, Turki adalah untuk Turki. Turki tidak bertanggung jawab kepada wilayah islam dan tidak lagi menggunakan islam sebagai ideologi negara. Utusan dari Surabaya tersebut datang ke Mekkah dan ingin mendapat kabar, apa betul kekhalifahan sudah dibubarkan. Setelah mendapat kabar dengan cukup dan sahih, maka utusan itu kembali ke Surabaya. Mereka berdiskusi dan memikirkan nasib ummat islam di dunia, khususnya di Indonesia. 
Mereka berpikir, siapa pemimpin mereka sekarang? Siapa yang menajdi khaliafh mereka sekarang? Apakah mereka mau mendirikan kekhalifahan? padahal Belanda masih bercokol kuat di Indonesia? Akhirnya mereka ber ijtihad. Mereka menyadari bahwa, kebangiktan ummat harus disiapkan. Kebangkitan islam harus disiapkan dengan matang. Mereka sadar, bahwa itu perlu waktu 10, 20, 100 bahkan mungkin 1000 tahun. Tetapi hitungan itu tak menjadi masalah. Kematian pun bukan sebagai halangan. Ganti generasi juga hal yang tidak merisaukan. Bahkan, bentuknya kayak apa di kelak kemudian hari juga tidak menjadi kerisauan mereka.
Yang jelas, mereka harus menyiapkannya. Mereka harus ikhtiar sebagai wujud pengabdian dan keimanan kepada Allloh SWT.
Ummat akan bangkit kalau pemimpinnya bangkit. Pemimpin akan bangkit kalau ulamanya bangkit. Akhirnya, lahirlah organisasi kemasyarakatan dan sekaligus organisasi perjuangan. Organisasi itu dinamakan Nahdlatul Ulama, yang artinya adalah kebangkitan para ulama. Lahir pada tahun 1926 di Surabaya!

Monday, May 21, 2012


29. Katakanlah: "Tuhanku menyuruh menjalankan keadilan". Dan (katakanlah): "Luruskanlah mukamu [533] di setiap sembahyang dan sembahlah Allah dengan mengikhlaskan keta'atanmu kepada-Nya. Sebagaimana Dia telah menciptakan kamu pada permulaan (demikian pulalah kamu akan kembali kepadaNya)".

[533] Maksudnya: tumpahkanlah perhatianmu kepada sembahyang itu dan pusatkanlah perhatianmu semata-mata kepada Allah.


Iso Maneh

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Al A'raf 29

29. Katakanlah: "Tuhanku menyuruh menjalankan keadilan". Dan (katakanlah): "Luruskanlah mukamu [533] di setiap sembahyang dan sembahlah Allah dengan mengikhlaskan keta'atanmu kepada-Nya. Sebagaimana Dia telah menciptakan kamu pada permulaan (demikian pulalah kamu akan kembali kepadaNya)".

[533] Maksudnya: tumpahkanlah perhatianmu kepada sembahyang itu dan pusatkanlah perhatianmu semata-mata kepada Allah.

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

Surat Arra'd ayat 11

agi manusia ada malaikat-malaikat yang selalu mengikutinya bergiliran, di muka dan di belakangnya, mereka menjaganya atas perintah Allah  767 Sesungguhnya Allah tidak merobah keadaan sesuatu kaum sehingga mereka merobah keadaan  768  yang ada pada diri mereka sendiri. Dan apabila Allah menghendaki keburukan terhadap sesuatu kaum, maka tak ada yang dapat menolaknya; dan sekali-kali tak ada pelindung bagi mereka selain Dia.                                                                                      Bagi tiap-tiap manusia ada beberapa malaikat yang tetap menjaganya secara bergiliran dan ada pula beberapa malaikat yang mencatat amalan-amalannya. Dan yang dikehendaki dalam ayat ini ialah malaikat yang menjaga secara bergiliran itu, disebut malaikat Hafazhah.  768 .                                                               Tuhan tidak akan merobah keadaan mereka, selama mereka tidak merobah sebab-sebab kemunduran mereka


Sunday, May 6, 2012

surat : Ar-Ra'd Ayat : 13 wayusabbihu alrra'du bihamdihi waalmalaa-ikatu min khiifatihi wayursilu alshshawaa'iqa fayushiibu bihaa man yasyaau wahum yujaadiluuna fii allaahi wahuwa syadiidu almihaali 13. Dan guruh itu bertasbih dengan memuji Allah, (demikian pula) para malaikat karena takut kepada-Nya, dan Allah melepaskan halilintar, lalu menimpakannya kepada siapa yang Dia kehendaki, dan mereka berbantah-bantahan tentang Allah, dan Dia-lah Tuhan Yang Maha keras siksa-Nya. SEBAB TURUNNYA AYAT: Imam Thabrani dan lain-lainnya mengetengahkan sebuah hadis melalui Ibnu Abbas r.a. yang menceritakan, bahwasanya orang-orang kafir Mekah berkata kepada Nabi saw., "Jika kamu benar seperti apa yang kamu katakan (yakni menjadi seorang rasul), maka perlihatkanlah kepada kami engkau menghidupkan nenek moyang kami yang telah mati, supaya kami dapat berbicara dengan mereka. Kemudian singkirkanlah bukit-bukit Mekah ini yang mengurungi kami." Lalu turunlah firman-Nya, "Dan sekiranya ada suatu bacaan (kitab suci) yang dengan bacaan itu gunung-gunung dapat dipindahkan ..." (Q.S. Ar-Ra'd 31). Ibnu Abu Hatim dan Ibnu Murdawaih mengetengahkan sebuah hadis melalui Athiyyah Al-Aufi yang menceritakan, bahwa orang-orang kafir Mekah berkata kepada Nabi saw., "Seandainya engkau dapat menyingkirkan bukit-bukit Mekah itu daripada kami, sehingga tanah menjadi lapang, maka kami akan bercocok tanam padanya. Seandainya engkau dapat membelah tanah sebagaimana yang pernah dilakukan oleh Nabi Sulaiman bagi kaumnya dengan memakai angin. Seandainya engkau dapat menghidupkan kembali bagi kami orang-orang yang telah mati, sebagaimana yang pernah dilakukan oleh Nabi Isa bagi kaumnya, (niscaya kami mau beriman kepadamu)." Lalu Allah swt. menurunkan firman-Nya, "Dan sekiranya ada suatu bacaan..." (Q.S. Ar-Ra'd 31).


Sudah terurai, semoga semkin terurai kembali.


Alhamdulillah, aku dapat aktif kembali